New method of computer-aided screening and diagnosis of oncological diseases of mammary and thyroid gland
New computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer and fibroadenomatosis based on the effect of deviation of morphometrical and cytospectrophotometrical indecies of interphase nuclei of sick patients’ oral mucous from those of healthy individuals (malignancy associated changes) is proposed.
At the first stage, we take scrapes from oral mucous of patients. Then, we obtain investigated indecies on the basis of DNA scanogramm of interphase nuclei. At the last stage we use special algorithms of statistical and geometrical theory of pattern recognition for detection and identification of oncological disease, comparing the indecies of a patient with those taken from the training samples, that contain quantitative indices of nuclei of cells of scrapes from oral mucous of patients suffering from oncological diseases with confirmed diagnosis.
The proposed method of computer-aided diagnosis was used for differential diagnosis of breast cancer and fibroadenomatosis in 103 patients. After the first scrape of interphase nuclei of epitheliocytes of spinous layer of buccal epithelium of the patients suffering from breast cancer diagnosis was confirmed in 94% of cases, the wrong diagnosis was made in 6% of cases, unacceptance of decision did not occur. Unacceptance of decision is the situation when computer-aded method produces contradictory diagnoses. For patients suffering from FAM the probability of the wrong diagnosis was equal to 0%, diagnoses was confirmed in 57% of cases, and unacceptance of decision occured in 43% of cases. The unacceptance of decision may be completely excluded with the help of the analysis of additional series of scrapes from the buccal epithelium of examined patient. In this case the probability of the wrong diagnosis unsignificantly increases, and the percent of the correct diagnoses increases up to 91%.
For diagnosis of pathologies of thyroid gland the investigations of the scanogramms of 60 patients with verificated diagnoses (adenocarcinoma of thyroid gland (14), autothyreoidit (29) and goiter (17)) was carried out. After analysis of the first scrape from buccal epithelium adenocarcinoma was confirmed in 50% of cases, in other 50% of cases the decision was not accepted. There were not any wrong diagnoses. The probability of the mistake under making diagnosis for goiter and autothyreoidit was equal to 6,5%, and the probability of unacceptance of decision was equal to 41%. Under repeated analysis directed on complete excluding of unacceptance of decision for these pathologies the probability of the mistake increases up to 9 %, and the percent of the correct diagnosis increases up to 90%.
Benefits of the method — non-invasiveness, the possibility to take multiple scrapes, objectiveness.
Also, in 2011, we developed new method of screening of breast cancer and fibroadenomatosis basing on analysis of fractal structure of chromatin in nuclei of buccal epithelium. We investigated two groups of women: healthy (29) and sick (101), consisting of women suffering from breast cancer (68) and fibroadenomatosis (33). The results: percent of correctly recognized cases of breast cancer and fibroadenomatosis (sensitivity) – 95,5%, percent of correctly recognized healthy women (specificity) – 90%, accuracy – 92,4%.
The method is implemented using microscope Opympus BX41 System, digital camera CAMEDIA C-5050ZOOM and software Opympus DP-SOFT 3.2 on computer Pentium 4, 2,6 ГГЦ under Windows XP.
The main results were published in the monograph Andrushkiw R.I., Boroday N.V., Klyushin D.A., Petunin Yu.A. Computer-aided cytogenetic method of cancer diagnosis. — New Jork: Nova Publishers, 2007.